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What is the general guiding method for piston rods?

The guiding method of the piston rod refers to the method and component used to maintain a straight trajectory of the piston rod during movement. Choosing the appropriate guidance method is crucial for ensuring its stability and accurate movement. Here are some common guidance methods:
1. Rolling guide: Rolling guide uses rolling elements, such as rolling bearings or ball bearings, to support the piston rod. This guidance method has the characteristics of low friction, high stiffness, and high accuracy, and is suitable for applications that require highly accurate position control. Rolling guide is usually used in precision machinery such as CNC machine tools and hydraulic cylinders.
2. Sliding guide: Sliding guide uses sliding surfaces, such as sliding bearings or surfaces coated with lubricating materials, to support the piston rod. Although sliding guides typically have low friction, they may generate significant frictional heat in high load and high-speed applications. Sliding guidance is typically used in applications that require lower costs, such as engineering machinery and automotive manufacturing.
3. Linear guide rail: Linear guide rail is a high-precision guiding method that uses rolling elements (usually balls or needles) to slide on the guide rail. Linear guides provide good accuracy, stiffness, and stability, making them suitable for applications that require highly accurate position control, such as precision instruments and semiconductor equipment.
4. Air cushion guidance: Air cushion guidance uses gas pressure to support and guide the piston rod, reducing friction and providing smooth movement. It is typically used in applications that require high speed and low friction, such as printing machinery.
5. Hydraulic guidance: In some hydraulic cylinders, hydraulic pressure can be used to guide the piston rod. This guidance method is usually used for heavy-duty and high-pressure applications, but may generate significant friction.
6. Magnetic levitation guidance: Magnetic levitation guidance uses magnetic force to support and guide piston rods, typically used for high-speed and high-precision applications such as maglev trains.
Choosing the appropriate guidance method depends on application requirements, including factors such as load, speed, accuracy, and cost. Different guidance methods have different characteristics and advantages, so it is necessary to make choices based on specific application and performance requirements. At the same time, the design and maintenance of guidance methods are also key factors in ensuring the reliability and performance of the system.